|Management of Hemorrhoid Complications in Persian Medicine|
|Khadijeh Hatami1, Amir-Hooman Kazemi-Motlagh1, Hossein Ajdarkosh2, Arman Zargaran3, Mehrdad Karimi1, Ali-Asghar Haeri Mehrizi4, Hoorieh Mohammadi Kenari5, Ahmad RezaShamshiri4|
|1Department of Traditional Medicine, Schoolof Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Traditional Pharmacy, Schoolof Persian Medicine,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Health Metrics Research center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
5Department of Traditional Medicine, Schoolof Persian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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Keywords : Hemorrhoid, Persian Medicine, Phlebotomy, Leech
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Objectives: Hemorrhoid disease is a common medical problem from ancient up to now. About 5-10% of patients don’t respond to conservative treatment and surgical procedures has 20-25 percent complication rate such as pain, anal stenosis, infection, incontinence, etc. So, most of patients and physicians seek alternative and complementary medicines. Persian medicine is one of the oldest traditional medicines that present different treatment methods for management of hemorrhoid complications. In this article we review these methods and their applications.
Materials and Methods:It is a historical review that principle of management and different medicinal and non-medicinal treatments for each complication of hemorrhoid were surveyed based on the main text books of disease-treatment and famous Pharmacopoeias of Persian medicine from 10th to 18th century AD. Recent findings about their pharmaceutical properties and mechanisms of action were searched from Google Scholar, Science Direct and PubMed databases.
Result:In Persian medicine, it is believed that hemorrhoid disease is because of melancholic or sanguineous distemperament. Cleansing the body and then strengthening the GI and liver for more effective treatment and prevention of relapse is the first therapeutic approach. They use herbal and non-herbal medicines with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory, analgesic and phlebotoic properties. In addition, Different methods of Bloodletting is used for body cleansing, reducing pain and treating bleeding or thrombotic hemorrhoids.
Conclusion:The proposed herbal and non-herbal medicines could be formulated for generating different pharmaceutical products. Non pharmaceutical methods could be used for postponing the need for surgical interventions.
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